The table below shows the amount of waste production (in millions of tonnes) in six different countries over a twenty-year period.
The chart compares the amounts of waste that were produced in six countries in the years 1980, 1990 and 2000.
In each of these years, the US produced more waste than Ireland, Japan, Korea, Poland and Portugal combined. It is also noticeable that Korea was the only country that managed to reduce its waste output by the year 2000.
Between 1980 and 2000, waste production in the US rose from 131 to 192 million tonnes, and rising trends were also seen in Japan, Poland and Portugal. Japan’s waste output increased from 28 to 53 million tonnes, while Poland and Portugal saw waste totals increase from 4 to 6.6 and from 2 to 5 million tonnes respectively.
The trends for Ireland and Korea were noticeably different from those described above. In Ireland, waste production increased more than eightfold, from only 0.6 million tonnes in 1980 to 5 million tonnes in 2000. Korea, by contrast, cut its waste output by 12 million tonnes between 1990 and 2000.
The bar graph shows the global sales (in billions of dollars) of different types of digital games between 2000 and 2006.
The bar chart compares the turnover in dollars from sales of video games for four different platforms, namely mobile phones, online, consoles and handheld devices, from 2000 to 2006.
It is clear that sales of games for three out of the four platforms rose each year, leading to a significant rise in total global turnover over the 7-year period. Sales figures for handheld games were at least twice as high as those for any other platform in almost every year.
In 2000, worldwide sales of handheld games stood at around $11 billion, while console games earned just under $6 billion. No figures are given for mobile or online games in that year. Over the next 3 years, sales of handheld video games rose by about $4 billion, but the figure for consoles decreased by $2 billion. Mobile phone and online games started to become popular, with sales reaching around $3 billion in 2003.
In 2006, sales of handheld, online and mobile games reached peaks of 17, 9 and 7 billion dollars respectively. By contrast, turnover from console games dropped to its lowest point, at around $2.5 billion.
The two pictures show the layout change of a park between 1980 and now.
The two pictures illustrate the layout of a particular city from 1965 to 2015 and its proposed changes in 2018.
These two maps clearly summarize the changes taken place at a college campus across those two years 1925 and 2010.
The maps illustrate the changes in the layout of a conference center from present to future.
It is noticeable that the urban area has changed considerably in terms of an increase of the local population and a decline of the woodland coverage. Also, a number of transport infrastructures have been and are planned to be built by the end of the period.
In conclusion, after a series of changes, the functions would be more diversified.
In conclusion, the function of the conference center is strengthened with the change of the layout.
1. There be
In 1980, there was a West-to-South main road in the park.
2. Be located/situated
Also, a small pond was located between main road and the west of the park, circled by three benches.
In 1925, a sports ground was situated in the northwest corner of the campus half surrounded by a road to its west.
3. With 伴随
There is a river Tam that crosses the city from north to south, with a tributary joining into the mainstream from the west.
Situated on the east side of the river Tam, a few houses ashore actually occupied only one fourth of the land.
One connected the car park located in the northeast and the other bridged a cafe and a music center, to the south of which was a lecture room.
There was no change about the road ,the lecture room and the music center
The garden and car park remain at the same location with a minor alteration in size.
At first, the main road is extended to north and east.
The previous park was demolished/knocked down/pulled down.
Besides, some new picnic chairs and desks are built among the trees for people to enjoy the barbecue.
A new bridge has been added to the upper reaches of the river, and another foot bridge to the south.
Then, the flowers in the southwest are replaced by bush and the flower bed in the southeast is substituted by a playground.
The maps below show the centre of a small town called Islip as it is now, and plans for its development.
The diagrams illustrate some proposed changes to the central area of the town of Islip.
It is clear that the principal change to the town will be the construction of a ring road around the centre. Various other developments with regard to shops and housing will accompany the building of this road.
Looking at the map of Islip as it is now, we can see that a main road runs throughits centre from east to west. The second map shows the planned pedestrianisation of this road. Traffic will be diverted on to a dual carriageway that will form a ring around the town centre.
Currently there is a row of shops along either side of the main road. However, it appears that the shops along the north side of the new pedestrian street will be demolished to make way for a bus station, shopping centre, car park and new housing area. The shops along the south side of the street will remain, but it seems that the town’s park will be reduced in size so that more new houses can be built within the ring road.
The pie charts below compare water usage in San Diego, California and the rest of the world.
The pie charts give information about the water used for residential, industrial and agricultural purposes in San Diego County, California, and the world as a whole.
It is noticeable that more water is consumed by homes than by industry or agriculture in the two American regions. By contrast, agriculture accounts for the vast majority of water used worldwide.
In San Diego County and California State, residential water consumption accounts for 60% and 39% of total water usage. By contrast, a mere 8% of the water used globally goes to homes. The opposite trend can be seen when we look at water consumption for agriculture. This accounts for a massive 69% of global water use, but only 17% and 28% of water usage in San Diego and California respectively.
Such dramatic differences are not seen when we compare the figures for industrial water use. The same proportion of water (23%) is used by industry in San Diego and worldwide, while the figure for California is 10% higher, at 33%.
The graph below shows the proportion of the population aged 65 and over between 1940 and 2040 in three different countries.
The line graph compares the percentage of people aged 65 or more in three countries over a period of 100 years.
It is clear that the proportion of elderly people increases in each country between 1940 and 2040. Japan is expected to see the most dramatic changes in its elderly population.
In 1940, around 9% of Americans were aged 65 or over, compared to about 7% of Swedish people and 5% of Japanese people. The proportions of elderly people in the USA and Sweden rose gradually over the next 50 years, reaching just under 15% in 1990. By contrast, the figures for Japan remained below 5% until the early 2000s.
Looking into the future, a sudden increase in the percentage of elderly people is predicted for Japan, with a jump of over 15% in just 10 years from 2030 to 2040. By 2040, it is thought that around 27% of the Japanese population will be 65 years old or more, while the figures for Sweden and the USA will be slightly lower, at about 25% and 23% respectively.
More and more people are migrating to cities in search of a better life, but city life can be extremely difficult. Explain some of the difficulties of living in a city. How can governments make urban life better for everyone?
Cities are often seen as places of opportunity, but there are also some major drawbacks of living in a large metropolis. In my opinion, governments could do much more to improve city life for the average inhabitant.
The main problem for anyone who hopes to migrate to a large city is that the cost of living is likely to be much higher than it is in a small town or village. Inhabitants of cities have to pay higher prices for housing, transport, and even food. Another issue is that urban areas tend to suffer from social problems such as high crime and poverty rates in comparison with rural areas. Furthermore, the air quality in cities is often poor, due to pollution from traffic, and the streets and public transport systems are usually overcrowded. As a result, city life can be unhealthy and stressful.
However, there are various steps that governments could take to tackle these problems. Firstly, they could invest money in the building of affordable or social housing to reduce the cost of living. Secondly, politicians have the power to ban vehicles from city centres and promote the use of cleaner public transport, which would help to reduce both air pollution and traffic congestion. In London, for example, the introduction of a congestion charge for drivers has helped to curb the traffic problem. A third option would be to develop provincial towns and rural areas, by moving industry and jobs to those regions, in order to reduce the pressure on major cities.
In conclusion, governments could certainly implement a range of measures toenhance the quality of life for all city residents.
Nowadays celebrities are more famous for their glamour and wealth than for their achievements, and this sets a bad example to young people.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
It is true that some celebrities are known for their glamorous lifestyles rather than for the work they do. While I agree that these celebrities set a bad example for children, I believe that other famous people act as positive role models.
On the one hand, many people do achieve fame without really working for it. They may have inherited money from parents, married a famous or wealthy person, or they may have appeared in gossip magazines or on a reality TV programme. A good example would be Paris Hilton, who is rich and famous for the wrong reasons. She spends her time attending parties and nightclubs, and her behaviour promotes the idea that appearance, glamour and media profile are more important than hard work and good character. The message to young people is that success can be achieved easily, and that school work is not necessary.
On the other hand, there are at least as many celebrities whose accomplishments make them excellent role models for young people. Actors, musicians and sports stars become famous idols because they have worked hard and applied themselves to develop real skills and abilities. They demonstrate greateffort, determination and ambition, which is required for someone who wants to be truly successful in their chosen field. An example is the actor and martial artist Jackie Chan, who has become world famous through years of practice and hard work. This kind of self-made celebrity can inspire children to develop their talentsthrough application and perseverance.
In conclusion, it seems to me that the influence of celebrities on young people can be positive as well as negative.
Some parents buy their children whatever they ask for, and allow their children to do whatever they want. Is this a good way to raise children? What consequences could this style of parenting have for children as they get older?
It is true that some parents are overly permissive and tend to spoil their children. In my opinion, this is not a good parenting style, and it can have a range of negative long-term consequences.
If parents want to raise respectful and well-behaved children, I believe that a certain amount of discipline is necessary. Having worked with children myself, I have learnt that clear expectations and boundaries are necessary, and it is important to be able to say ‘no’ to children when they misbehave or try to push against these boundaries. This is the only way to help young people to regulate their desires and develop self control. In my view, parents who do the opposite and constantly give in to their children’s demands, are actually doing more harm than good. They are failing their children rather than being kind to them.
The children of indulgent or lenient parents are likely to grow up with several negative personality traits. The first and most obvious danger is that these children will become self-centred adults who show little consideration for the feelings or needs of others. One consequence of such an attitude could be that these adults are unable to work successfully in teams with other colleagues. A second negative trait in such people could be impulsiveness. A person who has never lived with any boundaries is likely to lack the patience to carefully consider options before making decisions. This may lead, for example, to compulsive shopping, unwise financial decisions, or even criminal activity.
In conclusion, parents should help their children to develop self control and respect for others, and I do not believe that the permissive parenting style supports this objective.
Many governments think that economic progress is their most important goal. Some people, however, think that other types of progress are equally important for a country.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
People have different views about how governments should measure their countries’ progress. While economic progress is of course essential, I agree with those who believe that other measures of progress are just as important.
There are three key reasons why economic growth is seen as a fundamental goal for countries. Firstly, a healthy economy results in job creation, a high level of employment, and better salaries for all citizens. Secondly, economic progress ensures that more money is available for governments to spend on infrastructure and public services. For example, a government with higher revenues can invest in the country's transport network, its education system and its hospitals. Finally, a strong economy can help a country’s standing on the global stage, in terms of its political influence and trading power.
However, I would argue that various other forms of progress are just as significant as the economic factors mentioned above. In particular, we should consider the area of social justice, human rights, equality and democracy itself. For example, the treatment of minority groups is often seen as a reflection of the moral standards and level of development of a society. Perhaps another key consideration when judging the progress of a modern country should be how well that country protects the natural environment, and whether it is moving towards environmental sustainability. Alternatively, the success of a nation could be measured by looking at the health, well-being and happiness of its residents.
In conclusion, the economy is obviously a key marker of a country’s success, but social, environmental and health criteria are equally significant.
Some universities now offer their courses on the Internet so that people can study online. Is this a positive or negative development?
It is true that online courses are becoming a common feature of university education. Although there are some drawbacks of Internet-based learning, I would argue that there are far more benefits.
The main drawback of the trend towards online university courses is that there is less direct interaction. Students may not have the opportunity to engage face-to-face with their teachers, and will instead have to rely on written forms of communication. Similarly, students who study online do not come into direct contact with each other, and this could have a negative impact on peer support, discussion and exchange of ideas. For example, whereas students on traditional courses can attend seminars and even discuss their subjects over coffee after lessons, online learners are restricted to chatting through website forum areas. These learners may also lack the motivation and element of competition that face-to-face group work brings.
Despite the negatives mentioned above, I believe that online university courses are a positive development for various reasons. Firstly, they allow learners to study in a flexible way, meaning that they can work whenever and wherever is convenient, and they can cover the material at their own pace. Secondly, the cost of a university education can be greatly reduced, while revenues for institutions may increase as more students can be taught. Finally, online learning offers open access to anybody who is willing to study, regardless of age, location, ability and background.For example, my uncle, who is 65 years old, has recently enrolled on an online MBA course in a different country, which would have been impossible in the days beforeInternet-based education.
In conclusion, while I recognise the possible disadvantages of online learning, I consider it to be a positive development overall.
We cannot help everyone in the world that needs help, so we should only be concerned with our own communities and countries.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Some people believe that we should not help people in other countries as long as there are problems in our own society. I disagree with this view because I believe that we should try to help as many people as possible.
On the one hand, I accept that it is important to help our neighbours and fellow citizens. In most communities there are people who are impoverished or disadvantaged in some way. It is possible to find homeless people, for example, in even the wealthiest of cities, and for those who are concerned about this problem, there are usually opportunities to volunteer time or give money to support these people. In the UK, people can help in a variety of ways, from donating clothing to serving free food in a soup kitchen. As the problems are on our doorstep, and there are obvious ways to help, I can understand why some people feel that we should prioritise local charity.
At the same time, I believe that we have an obligation to help those who live beyond our national borders. In some countries the problems that people face are much more serious than those in our own communities, and it is often even easier to help. For example, when children are dying from curable diseases in African countries, governments and individuals in richer countries can save lives simply by paying for vaccines that already exist. A small donation to an international charity might have a much greater impact than helping in our local area.
In conclusion, it is true that we cannot help everyone, but in my opinion national boundaries should not stop us from helping those who are in need.
1. The only way to improve the safety on our roads is to give much stricter punishment to driving offences. To what extent do you agree or disagree？
2. Some people think young people are not suitable for important positions in the government，while other people think it is a good idea for young people to take these positions. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
3. Nowadays, many people do not feel safe either when they are at home or go out. What are the reasons and what can be done to solve this problem?
4. People believe that they should be able to keep all the money they earn and should not pay tax to the state. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
5.Some people believe that the best way to build a happier society is to ensure that there are only small differences between the richest and the poorest members. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
1. Some people think that advertising discourages us from being different individuals, as all people want to do the same and look the same. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
2. Nowadays there is a trend that reports of media focus on problems and emergencies rather than positive developments. Some people think it is harmful to individuals and to the society. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
3. Films and computer games containing violence are popular. Some people say they have negative effect on society and should be banned. Others say they are just harmless relaxation. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
4. More and more people want to buy famous brands of clothes, cars and other items. What are the reasons? Do you think it is a positive or negative development?
1. Some people think that all young people should be required to have full-time education until they are at least 18 years old. To what extent do you agree or disagree？
2. Some working parents believe childcare centers can provide best care for children, while others think family members like grandparents can do it better. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
3. Some people think that children should obey the rules as parents and teachers want them to do. Others think that less control will help children deal with adult life. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
4. Some people think that only the best students should be rewarded. Others, however, think that it is more important to reward students who show improvements. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
5. Some people think secondary school students should learn international news as one of their subjects, while others believe that this is a waste of valuable time. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
6. Some people believe that everyone has the right to receive university education, so the government should make it free to all people regardless of their financial background. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
1. Some people believe that when designing a building, the most important thing to be considered is the function rather than the appearance. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
2. Some people think that the government has the duty to ensure that its citizens have a healthy diet, while others believe this is individuals' responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
1. It is said that very soon computers will become more intelligent than human beings. Some people think it is a positive development, while others think it is a negative development. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
2. With the increasing use of mobile phones and computers, people are no longer writing letters now. Some people think the traditional skill of writing letters will disappear. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
3. Public museums are no longer important, as people can see historical objects and artworks on virtual museums. To what extent do you agree or disagree？
1. In a global economy, many goods, including what we use on a daily basis, are transported from other counties in a long distance. Do its benefits outweigh its drawbacks?